Ketamine: A Clinical Update

Presented by:
Brendan Butler, MD
Maria Franco, MD
Gabriel Jerkins, MD
Ryan Joy, DO
Brittany Michael, MD
George Raineri, MD
Chloe Schneider, DO
Alexander Sidawi, DO
General Psychiatry Residents
Class of 2023

Faculty Disclosure:

Drs. Butler, Franco, Jerkins, Joy, Michael, Raineri, Schneider, and Sidawi have disclosed that they have no relevant financial relationships. No one else in a position to control content has any financial relationships to disclose

Conflict of interest information for the CME Advisory Committee members can be found on the following website: All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Release Date: June 16, 2023
Expiration Date: June 15, 2025

Target Audience: All physicians; LCSW, LMHC, LMFT licensed only in Florida

Learning Objectives:

As a result of participation in this activity, participants should be able to:

  1. Review the history of ketamine.
  2. Describe the mechanism of action of ketamine.
  3. Identify current indications of the use of ketamine in psychiatric patients.
  4. Describe contradictions to the use of ketamine in psychiatric patients.
  5. Evaluate the limitations of the data supporting the use of ketamine.

Requirements for successful completion: Certificates are awarded upon successful completion (80% proficiency) of the post-test.

Accreditation: The University of Florida College of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit: The University of Florida College of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. This program has been approved for 1.0 clinical hours of continuing education for clinical social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage & family therapists by Shands at the University of Florida, Patient and Family Resources,

BAP-7. CEU credits for LCSW, LMHC, LMFT licensed ONLY IN FLORIDA. Certification of completion provided to all participants regardless of state.

Resources for further study:

  1. Trevino K, McClintock SM, McDonald Fischer N, Vora A, Husain MM. Defining treatment-resistant depression: a comprehensive review of the literature. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;26(3):222-32. PMID: 25166485
  2. Culp C, Kim HK, Abdi S. Ketamine Use for Cancer and Chronic Pain Management. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 2;11:599721. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.599721. PMID: 33708116; PMCID: PMC7941211
  3. Papakostas GI, Salloum NC, Hock RS, Jha MK, Murrough JW, Mathew SJ, Iosifescu DV, Fava M. Efficacy of Esketamine Augmentation in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2020 May 26;81(4):19r12889. doi: 10.4088/JCP.19r12889. PMID: 32459407
  4. McIntyre, R. S., Rosenblat, J. D., Nemeroff, C. B., Sanacora, G., Murrough, J. W., Berk, M., Brietzke, E., Dodd, S., Gorwood, P., Ho, R., Iosifescu, D. V., Lopez Jaramillo, C., Kasper, S., Kratiuk, K., Lee, J. G., Lee, Y., Lui, L. M. W., Mansur, R. B., Papakostas, G. I., . . . Stahl, S. (2021). Synthesizing the evidence for ketamine and esketamine in treatment-resistant depression: An international expert opinion on the available evidence and implementation. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 178(5), 383-399.
  5. Matveychuk D, Thomas RK, Swainson J, Khullar A, MacKay MA, Baker GB, Dursun SM. Ketamine as an antidepressant: overview of its mechanisms of action and potential predictive biomarkers. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2020 May 11;10:2045125320916657. doi: 10.1177/2045125320916657. PMID: 32440333; PMCID: PMC7225830
  6. Mion G, Villevieille T. Ketamine pharmacology: an update (pharmacodynamics and molecular aspects, recent findings). CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013 Jun;19(6):370-80. doi: 10.1111/cns.12099. Epub 2013 Apr 10. PMID: 23575437; PMCID: PMC6493357
  7. “White Powder on a Table.” Stanford Medicine, Stanford University, 15 May 2017, Accessed 7 June 2023
  8. Ketamine Wellness Center. (n.d.). “Ketamine IV Infusion”. Ketamine Wellness Center – Appleton, WI. Retrieved June 7, 2023, from
  9. Li L, Vlisides PE. Ketamine: 50 Years of Modulating the Mind. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016 Nov 29;10:612. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00612. PMID: 27965560; PMCID: PMC5126726
  10. Mion G. History of anaesthesia: The ketamine story – past, present and future. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2017 Sep;34(9):571-575. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000638. PMID: 28731926
  11. Domino EF, Luby ED. Phencyclidine/schizophrenia: one view toward the past, the other to the future. Schizophr Bull. 2012 Sep;38(5):914-9. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs011. Epub 2012 Mar 5. PMID: 22390879; PMCID: PMC3446224
  12. Berman RM, Cappiello A, Anand A, Oren DA, Heninger GR, Charney DS, Krystal JH. Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Feb 15;47(4):351-4. doi: 10.1016/s0006-3223(99)00230-9. PMID: 10686270
  13. Feder A, Parides MK, Murrough JW, Perez AM, Morgan JE, Saxena S, Kirkwood K, Aan Het Rot M, Lapidus KA, Wan LB, Iosifescu D, Charney DS. Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;71(6):681-8. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.62. PMID: 24740528.

If you have any questions please feel free to contact Nancy Boyd at (352) 594-4298 or at