Psychiatry Grand Rounds: Varieties of Catatonia

Presented by:
Dr. Andrew Francis, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry
Penn State College of Medicine

Dr. Charles Mormando, DO
Assistant Professor
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Health
Division of Adult Inpatient Services, Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute

Faculty Disclosure:

Drs. Francis and Mormando have disclosed that they have no relevant financial relationships. No one else in a position to control content has any financial relationships to disclose.

Conflict of interest information for the CME Advisory Committee members can be found on the following website: All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

Release Date: December 20, 2022
Expiration Date:  December 19, 2025


Target Audience: All physicians

Learning Objectives:

As a result of participation in this activity, participants should be able to:

  1. Identify three common catatonic signs.
  2. Identify two complications of severe persistent catatonia.
  3. Identify two treatment options for catatonia.

Requirements for successful completion: Certificates are awarded upon successful completion (80% proficiency) of the post-test.

Accreditation: The University of Florida College of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit: The University of Florida College of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Resource(s) for further study:

  1. Catatonia. I. Rating scale and standardized examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996:93:137-143.
  2. Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, Dowling F, Francis A. Catatonia. II. Treatment with lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996:93:137-143.
  4. Taylor MA, Abrams R. The Phenomenology of Mania: A New Look at Some Old Patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973;29(4):520-522. Doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1973.04200040066011
  5. Coffey M, Cooper J. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. The Journal of ECT. 2016;32(4):225-229. Doi:10.1097/YCT.0000000000000334
  6. Llesuy, et al. Suspected Delirium Predicts the Thoroughness of Catatonia Evaluation. Published Online: Nov 2016.
  7. Wilson, et al. The Diagnostic Criteria and Structure of Catatonia. Schizophrenia Research. 2015;164(1-3):256-262.
  8. Taylor MA, Fink M. Catatonia in Psychiatric Classification: A Home of Its Own. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Published Online: July 2003.
  9. McCall, et al. The Addition of Intravenous Caffeine During an Amobarbital Interview. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1992;17(5):195-197. PMID: 1489761.
  10. Hawkins, et al. Somatic Treatment of Catatonia. Intl J Psychiat in Med. 1995;25:345-369.
  11. Thomas, et al. Catatonia and Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Study of 12 Cases. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2007;31(6):1170-1176.
  12. Girish, et al. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Lorazepam Non-Responsive Catatonia. Ind J Psychiatr. 2003;45(1):21-25. PMID: 21206808.
  13. Graziane J, Davidowicz E, Francis A. Can Memantine Improve Catatonia and Co-occurring Cognitive Dysfunction? A Case Report and Brief Literature Review. Psychosomatics. 2020;61(6):759-763.
  14. Fink M. Delirious Mania. Bipolar Disorders. 1999;1(1):54-60.
  15. Bush G, Francis A. Excited Catatonia: Prevalence and Phenomenology. American Psychiatric Association, Philadelphia, May 1994.
  16. Francis A, Lopez-Canino A. Delirium with Catatonic Features: A New Subtype? Psychiatric Times. 2009;26(7).
  17. Grover S, et al. Do Patients of Delirium Have Catatonic Features? An Exploratory Study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2014;68(8):644-651.
  18. Wilson, et al. Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: the DeCat Prospective Cohort Investigation. Crit Care Med. 2017;45(11):1837-1844. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002642
  19. Billstedt E, Gillberg C, Gillberg C. Autism after Adolescence: Population-based 13- to 22-year Follow-up Study of 120 Individuals with Autism Diagnosed in Childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2005;35:351-360.
  20. Breen J, Hare DJ. The Nature and Prevalence of Catatonic Symptoms in Young People with Autism. JIDR. 2017;61(6):580-593.
  21. Wing L, Shah A. Catatonia in Autistic Spectrum Disorders. BJPsych. Published Online: January 2018.
  22. Miles, et al. Catatonia in Down Syndrome: Systematic Approach to Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome Assessment Based on a Case Series in Seven Patients. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019;15:2723-2741. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S210613

If you have any questions please feel free to contact Nancy Boyd at (352) 594-4298 or at